Dr. Baruch Zoltan Francisc
Professor




BARUCH, ZOLTAN FRANCISC

COMPUTER INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEMS
(in Romanian)

Editura Albastră, Cluj-Napoca, 2000, ISBN 973-9443-39-7 (371 pages)










| Book Page | (Romanian only)


TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. I/O SYSTEMS
1.2. I/O SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
1.3. I/O SYSTEM STRUCTURE
1.4. TYPES OF PERIPHERAL DEVICES
1.5. I/O MODULES

1.5.1. I/O Module Function. 1.5.2. I/O Module Structure

1.6. THE EXTERNAL INTERFACE

2. DATA TRANSFER METHODS

2.1. PROGRAMMED I/O

2.1.1. I/O Commands. 2.1.2. I/O Instructions

2.2. INTERRUPT-DRIVEN I/O

2.2.1. Principle of Interrupt-Driven I/O. 2.2.2. Multiple-Interrupt Systems. 2.2.3. Priority Interrupt Systems: Parallel Priority Interrupt; Daisy-Chain Priority Interrupt. 2.2.4. Interrupt Service Routines. 2.2.5. Example Interrupt Systems: IBM PC/AT Computers; Motorola 680x0 Microprocessors; PDP-11 Computers

2.3. TRANSFER BY DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA)

2.3.1. Principle of DMA Transfer. 2.3.2. Example DMA Systems: IBM PC/AT Computers; PDP-11 Computers

2.4. TRANSFER BY I/O CHANNELS

2.4.1. Principle of Transfer by I/O Channels. 2.4.2. CPU-I/O Channel Communication. 2.4.3. Example I/O Channels: IBM System/370 I/O Channel; Intel 8089 I/O Processor

3. BUSES

3.1. ELECTRICAL CONSIDERATIONS

3.1.1. Transmission Lines. 3.1.2. Signal Reflections. 3.1.3. Terminations

3.2. SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS BUSES

3.2.1. Synchronous Buses. 3.2.2. Asynchronous Buses

3.3. BUS ARBITRATION

3.3.1. Centralized Arbitration. 3.3.2. Decentralized Arbitration

3.4. BUS PARKING
3.5. EXAMPLE BUSES

3.5.1. ISA Bus. 3.5.2. IBM PC/AT Bus. 3.5.3. VME Bus: Principles; Functional Structure; Bus Cycles; Bus Arbitration. 3.5.4. Micro Channel Bus. 3.5.5. EISA Bus. 3.5.6. Local Buses: Performance Requirements; Local Bus Concept. 3.5.7. VL Bus. 3.5.8. PCI Bus: Overview; PCI Bus Signals; PCI Bus Features; Transactions; Interrupts; Configuration Registers

4. MONITORS AND VIDEO ADAPTERS

4.1. CATHODE RAY TUBE
4.2. TYPES OF COLOR TUBES

4.2.1. Shadow Mask (Dot Trio). 4.2.2. Aperture Grill. 4.2.3. Croma Clear

4.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF MONITORS

4.3.1. Analog and Digital Monitors. 4.3.2. Dot Pitch. 4.3.3. Resolution. 4.3.4. Refresh Rate. 4.3.5. Screen Size. 4.3.6. Monitor Controls. 4.3.7. Image Quality Factors. 4.3.8. DPMS (Display Power Management Signaling). 4.3.9. DDC (Display Data Channel). 4.3.10. Low Radiation Monitors

4.4. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS
4.5. VIDEO ADAPTERS FOR THE IBM PC SYSTEMS

4.5.1. Unaccelerated Video Adapters. 4.5.2. Video Memory Performance Factors. 4.5.3. Video Accelerators: Bus Interface; Graphics Accelerator; Video Memory. 4.5.4. Video Memory Technologies: Categories of DRAM; DRAM; FPM DRAM; EDO DRAM; BEDO DRAM; JEDEC SDRAM; PC100 SDRAM; DDR SDRAM; ESDRAM; SGRAM; RDRAM, DRDRAM; SLDRAM; MDRAM; VRAM; WRAM. 4.5.5. 3D Video Accelerators: The Need for 3D Accelerators; 3D Images and Operations; Factors that Affect 3D Performance; Types of 3D Video Adapters; 3D Software Issues. 4.5.6. The AGP Interface: Principle of AGP; AGP Data Transfer Modes; AGP Memory Mapping; AGP Software Issues; Advantages of AGP

4.6. VIDEO IMAGE CAPTURE AND PLAYBACK

4.6.1. Video Image Capture. 4.6.2. Combining Video and Graphics Images

4.7. VIDEO COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION STANDARDS

4.7.1. Characteristics of Video Compression and Decompression Standards: Symmetry; Compression with Losses and without Losses; Spatial and Temporal Compression. 4.7.2. MPEG: Overview of MPEG Standards; Differences between the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Standards; Interlaced Image Encoding; Profiles and Levels; Applications of MPEG Compression. 4.7.3. Motion JPEG. 4.7.4. Cinepak. 4.7.5. Indeo

5. HARD DISK DRIVES

5.1. INTRODUCTION
5.2. SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION
5.3. MAGNETIC DATA RECORDING
5.4. CONSTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS

5.4.1. Hard Disk Platters. 5.4.2. Magnetic Layer. 5.4.3. Read/Write Heads: Read/Write Head Floating; Read/Write Head Technologies. 5.4.4. Head Actuator Mechanisms: Stepper Motor Actuators; Voice Coil Actuators; Servo Mechanisms. 5.4.5. Spindle Motor. 5.4.6. Logic Board. 5.4.7. Connectors and Jumpers

5.5. OPERATIONAL DETAILS

5.5.1. Read/Write Clock Synchronization. 5.5.2. Bit Detection

5.6. DATA REPRESENTATION AND PHYSICAL ORGANIZATION

5.6.1. Data Encoding Methods: FM Encoding; MFM Encoding; RLL Encoding; PRML Encoding and Detection. 5.6.2. Tracks, Cylinders, and Sectors: The Difference between Tracks and Cylinders; Track and Sector Organization; Zoned Bit Recording; Sector Interleaving; Head Skewing; Cylinder Skewing; Parameters and Parameter Translation. 5.6.3. Hard Disk Formatting: Physical Formatting; Partitioning; Logical Formatting. 5.6.4. Error Management: Error Correcting Codes; Error Management Protocol; Defect Mapping; Spare Sectors

5.7. HARD DISK DRIVE CHARACTERISTICS

5.7.1. Capacity: Formatted and Unformatted Capacity; Binary vs. Decimal Capacity Measurements. 5.7.2. Areal density. 5.7.3. Internal Performance Factors: Positioning and Transfer Factors; Seek Time; Latency; Access Time; Head Switch Time; Track Switch Time; Internal Data Transfer Rate; Spindle Speed. 5.7.4. External Performance Factors: External Data Transfer Rate; System Factors; Command Overhead; File System Performance Factors. 5.7.5. Quality and Reliability: Service Life; Reliability; SMART. 5.7.6. Characteristics of Example Hard Disk Drives

5.8. PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENTS OF DISK SUBSYSTEMS

5.8.1. Hard Disk Cache Memories. 5.8.2. Disk Ensembles. 5.8.3. Disk Arrays. 5.8.4. Redundancy in Disk Arrays: RAID

5.9. HARD DISK INTERFACES

5.9.1. IDE/ATA Interface: Transfer Modes; Types of Interfaces Based on the ATA Standard; Summary of IDE/ATA Interfaces; Advantages and Disadvantages of IDE/ATA Interface. 5.9.2. SCSI: Overview of SCSI; SCSI Standards; Types of SCSI; Comparison between IDE/ATA and SCSI Drives and Interfaces

6. OPTICAL DISCS

6.1. INTRODUCTION
6.2. SHORT HISTORY OF OPTICAL DISCS
6.3. CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL DISCS
6.4. STANDARDS FOR OPTICAL DISCS

6.4.1. Red Book. 6.4.2. Yellow Book. 6.4.3. Green Book. 6.4.4. Orange Book. 6.4.5. White Book. 6.4.6. Blue Book

6.5. COMPACT DISC PHYSICAL MEDIUM
6.6. COMPACT DISC DATA ORGANIZATION AND ENCODING

6.6.1. Data Encoding on the Physical Medium. 6.6.2. First Level of Error Correction. 6.6.3. Sector Format. 6.6.4. Second Level of Error Correction. 6.6.5. Disc Organization. 6.6.6. Subchannel Information Formats: Format 1; Format 2; Format 3. 6.6.7. The High Sierra (ISO 9660) Standard. 6.6.8. Extensions of the ISO 9660 Standard: Rock Ridge; HFS; Joliet

6.7. THE CD-ROM DRIVE

6.7.1. Construction and Operation of CD-ROM Drives: Optical Read Assembly; Positioning Mechanism; Spindle Motor; Connectors and Jumpers; Outputs and Audio Settings. 6.7.2. CD-ROM Drive Performance Factors: General Performance Issues; Nominal Speed; Speed Change Time; Seek Time; Latency; Access Time; Internal and External Transfer Rate; Buffers and Cache Memories; System Cache Memories; Quality and Reliability Issues. 6.7.3. CD-ROM Drive Interfaces: Proprietary Interfaces; ATAPI; SCSI. 6.7.4. Drivers and File System Extensions. 6.7.5. Characteristics of Example CD-ROM Drives

6.8. TYPES OF OPTICAL DISCS

6.8.1. Video Disc. 6.8.2. Compact Disc Digital Audio (CD-DA). 6.8.3. Variants of the Compact Audio Discs. 6.8.4. CD-I (CD-Interactive). 6.8.5. CD-ROM/XA (CD-ROM Extended Architecture). 6.8.6. CD Bridge. 6.8.7. Photo CD. 6.8.8.Video CD. 6.8.9. CD Recordable (CD-R): CD-R and Data Recording; CD-R Drives. 6.8.10. CD Read/Write (CD-RW): CD-RW and Data Recording; Recording and Erasing Processes; CD-RW Drives. 6.8.11. CD TEXT. 6.8.12. CD EXTRA. 6.8.13. DVD: Overview; Using the DVD-Video Discs; DVD-Video Discs and the Movie Studios; Sizes and Capacities of DVDs; Technical Details of DVDs; The DVD Drive; Using the DVD Drives in Personal Computers; DVD Movie Playback on Computers; Recordable DVDs

7. PRINTERS

7.1. PRINTER TYPES
7.2. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A PRINTING EQUIPMENT
7.3. ELECTRO-PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTERS
7.4. INKJET PRINTERS

7.4.1. Continuous Jet Printers. 7.4.2. Intermittent Jet Printers. 7.4.3. Drops-on-Request Printers. 7.4.4. Inkjet Printer Technologies: Thermal Method (Bubble Jet); Piezo-Electric Method

7.5. COLOR PRINTERS

7.5.1. Inkjet Color Printers. 7.5.2. Electro-Photographic Color Printers

BIBLIOGRAPHY